Franz Kafka [ˈ franʦ ˈ kafka]? (Prague3 July 1883 – 3 June Kierling1924) was a German-language writer who is considered one of the most important authors of thetwentieth century. After his death his work was especially a great influence on Western literature.

Kafka is best known as the author of the novels the trial and the lock as well as the Novella the metamorphosis. His work includes many more, and appears to be characterized by a nightmarish, ominous atmosphere (known as Kafkaesque ) in which the bureaucracy and the impersonal society more and more influence on the individual. Hendrik Marsman [1this atmosphere described as an ' extremely mysterious zakelijkheid '. Kafka's oeuvre is viewed as a symbol for the uprooted man in modern times[2]. Some believe, however, that the work of Kafka is just an attempt, in an apparent fight with ' higher powers ', the initiative to give back to the individual, which are ultimately makes choices and is responsible[3.


[hide]*1 Life



[1][2]Kafka at the age of five.

Franz Kafka was born into a middle-class Jewish family in Prague, the capital of Bohemia in the dual monarchy Austria-Hungary. His father Hermann Kafka (1852 – 1931) came from the South-Bohemian village of Osek (Wohsek) to Prague, to a shop in galanteriewaren (yarn and band) to set up. Hermann, the fourth son of Jacob Kafka, is by Kafka himself and his biographers described as a self-righteous and dominant father, with whom Kafka had a difficult relationship.

Although Kafka also had no intense relationship with his mother, he largely identified with his family on his mother's side, which, in contrast to his father's family known as spiritually and intellectually.

Kafka had two younger brothers, Georg and Heinrich, who at the age of fifteen and six months respectively died, and three younger sisters, Gabriele (Elli) (1889 – 1942?), Valerie (Valli) (1890 – 1942?), and Ottilie (Ottla) (1892 – 1943). Elli and Valli were in the Second World War to the Łódź ghetto of deported and arrived there in a concentration camp in Theresienstadt and Ottla, while ended up first to hence with a group of children entrusted to it was transported to Auschwitz and here probably in October 1943 was killed.

Youth and apprenticeship[Edit]Edit

Kafka's native language was German, but he was also fluent in Czech. From 1889 to 1893 he attended the basic school at the Fleischmarkt (meat market, now Masnástraat) in Prague. His Jewish education was limited to celebrating his bar mitzvah when he was thirteen years old, and the four times a year attending services in the synagogue.

After primary school he was admitted at the State gymnasium in Prague, Altstädter Deutsches Gymnasiumthe German language. In 1901 he did successfully final exam. Admitted on the famous Charles University of Prague, where he began to study chemistry, but after two weeks to omzwaaide rights. He joined the Lese-und Redehalle der Deutschen Students, aStudent Association that includes literary events and lectures provided. At the end of his first year of study met Max Brod, which would continue throughout his life, his best friend, and that after Kafka's death would publish most of his work.

During his studies, German studies and art history followed Kafka a semester; He considered some time in order to continue this study at the University of Munich, but remained the Law faithfully, he on 18 June 1906without study delay award-winning with a promotion to doctor of law with professor Alfred Weber. After graduating he fulfilled his civilian conscription by a year-long unpaid working as clerk to a court.


On 1 november 1907 , he was employed by Assicurazioni Generali, an Italian insurance company. After having worked here only nine months took Kafka on 15 July 1908 dismissal, said it bothered him too much because the long working time in practicing his great passion: writing. Two weeks later he joined the workers ' Accident Insurance Institute for the Kingdom of Bohemia, where he continued to work until his premature retirement in 1922. Although he often denounced his work as a ' Brotberuf ', his performance greatly appreciated by his employer, among other things, it is clear from the promotions that Kafka made during his career. Its task was to limit security risks for workers with-then often had to work still unsafe machines; to this end, he visited many factories and wrote information materials. He was also responsible for the classification of companies in risk groups. Also claims that he was in need of conscience, but the company often left him the space to be accommodating for the victims, which sometimes had suffered permanent injury.

In addition to his job at the insurance company continued to write, which he continued a specific daily schedule Kafka: he worked at the Office in the morning, in the afternoon he went several hours sleep, he went hiking, eating with friends or family, to then put to writing in the evening, where he went late into the night through. During one of those nights he put ' as in a daze ' the story Das Urteil (the verdict) on paper.

In 1911 invited his brother-in-law Karl Hermann – husband of his sister Elli – Kafka from to participate in driving the Prager Asbestwerke Hermann und co. an asbestos factory in Prague. Kafka appeared and stayed some time much of his free time at the factory, but he loathed work, because the Makkah him of writing. In the fall of 1912 he was not far off, to commit suicide because of his work in the factory. By an urgent call fromMax Brod to Kafka's mother Julie was averted and the looming crisis could be found a successor.


Kafka had a problematic relationship with women. In 1912 he met Max Brod at the home of the Berlin Felice Bauer (1887-1960), representative for a company that acted in dictaphones . In the five years that followed led to an intensive correspondence between Kafka and Felice. Both met each other every now and then, which twice led to an engagement. On the part of Kafka, it was primarily a platonic love, which he mainly in stand held through his letters. Gradually he realized, how difficult a traditional married life would be with the much more mundane ' Felice ', especially in its inclination to lock themselves behind his desk; as a result, ran the relationship in 1917 in the end piece. Kafka became engaged again in 1919 with Julie Wohryzeck, a Secretary from Prague, but his father opposed violently against the relationship. This was the same year still ended – as far as is known, by Julie-but as a result, the conflict that Kafka is sharper against the influence of his father, who opposed his son went like as successor had seen in his department store company.

In the beginning of the 1920s developed between Kafka and the free-spirited Czech journalist and writer Milena Jesenská a short-lived, but very intense relationship. Of all the women in his life-there were still various ' affaires '-has sensed the extremely sensitive Milena author probably best, and at the very least she could him help his fears about their scarce at meetings. But in the end he felt uneasy at the flamboyant artist anyway.

In 1923 Kafka moved to Berlinfor some time, hoping themselves without the interference of family to be able to concentrate better on his writing. In that period he met Dora Diamant, a 25-year-old kindergarten teacher from an orthodox Jewish family. Dora was Kafka's partner in Berlin and influenced Kafka's growing interest in the Talmud. At her tasted Kafka eventually something of marriage luck, that he no longer thought possible. Together they made plans to emigrate to Palestine.


[3][4]Kafka in 1923

Kafka In 1917 began regular blood and made the diagnosis was tuberculosis . It led to an almost obsessive self-pity in his letters to Felice, whom he held it before his illness as a reason to break off his engagement. But also his writing he saw as stumbling block to a ' normal ' family life, that with the lively and less intellectual set Felice without a doubt a big problem would have become. He saw his illness as a metaphor for the failure of his life, in the final sense now the authorship of which he was looking for. Kafka, who had suffered, such ashypochondriacal draw now is adopted, to clinical depression and social anxiety disorder, but also had stress-related physical, presumably phenomena of migraineinsomniaconstipationand boils. Kafka distrusted mainstream medicine[4and tried to fight its complaints with naturopathic cures, a vegetarian diet and drinking unpasteurised milk. He used his vacation days to undergo rest cures in sanatoriums, for which his employer allowed him special leave. In 1922, the writer, for his overall physical condition, early retirement pension granted.

[5][6]The tomb of Kafka.

Although Kafka's personal situation had improved greatly after his move to Berlin, and he wrote very much again, inflation was winter of 1923-1924 in Berlin are disastrous for already shaky health. Lifetime scarce and he had to those stories; the cold in the metamorphosis was not conducive to his healing. When visited him in March 1924 Brod was his condition was so deteriorated that he join him to Prague; larynx tuberculosis was detected in april. It was clear that Kafka had not long to live more: no one knew Nutritionalsantibiotics and so that Kafka could eat more difficult — a State that draw the figure showed Gregor in the metamorphosis and the protagonist of his novel a hunger artist.

In his last months he was assisted by a friend and physician Robert Klopstock, critical oversaw Kafka's medical care, but the patient could be helped only with painkillers. Kafka was included in the sanatorium Kierling near Vienna, where he on 3 June 1924 with Dora at his side died, probably of malnutrition. His remains were transferred to Prague, where he on 11 June 1924 was buried at the New Jewish cemetery in Žižkov.


Kafka saw writing as a deep inner need, though it was for him "a terrible activity ', that ' a full opening of body and soul ' was all about. He spoke of ' the frozen sea in our '; had to be a book as ' the axe ' that ' open minced '. Write one served according to Kafka to do as if one is in a dark tunnel, still without knowing how the characters will develop itself further.

Text History[Edit]Edit

Kafka published during his lifetime only a few short stories and the Novella the metamorphosis, which was but a very limited part of his work. Of the great novels that he wrote during his lifetime were the lock 'Americaand never completed. The process ends, but the seventh chapter remained unfinished and the order of the chapters is uncertain. Kafka wrote all his works in German, apart from some letters in Czech to his beloved Milena Jesenská.

Kafka wore before his death his friend and executor Max Brod to destroy his manuscripts in writing. But Brod saw in the written indication of his friend, that he had to execute this ' judgment ', a licence not to do so: he that Kafka's works just like no other knew and appreciated on several occasions, had informed his friend to do his utmost to preserve for posterity, for his work. About this by Brod presumed ambiguity of Kafka's ' testament ' (in fact no more than a short note) is the necessary discussion arise afterwards. How seriously Kafka's desire was, that all his unpublished work had to be destroyed, will perhaps never quite become clear.Though it is common ground that the writer several manuscripts, including numerous stories and at least one play, itself has destroyed or had them burn by his girlfriend Dora.

As far as Brod the manuscripts of Kafka for the war not speaking hands managed to get, became to Kafka's last will met by the Gestapo, in early 1933after seizure of power by Hitler, took about 20 journals and 35 letters in the Berlin home of Dora. Despite the active involvement of the Czech Embassy in Berlin, were these and other scripts that fell into the hands of the Nazis never recovered and they apply as lost.

However, Brod ignored the instructions of his friend and took care of the posthumous publication of most of his work. He published Kafka's great novels already in the twenties; bringing together and publish the other work, especially the large numbers of journals and letters, he no longer before the outbreak of the Second World War. The night before the occupation of Prague by the Nazis in March 1939, he managed with most of Kafka's manuscripts to escape to Palestine, after which also the other failed work of his friend could be published gradually.

[7][8]A reminder of Kafka, on the wall of his parents ' House

Spending by Brod are, however, controversial: Kafka had died without his manuscripts for publication ready. Some works – such as the lockin the middle of a sentence ended, and the process, of which the chapters were unnumbered – were incomplete and some (the lock) in terms of content were rather ambiguous. It seems that Brod is quite a bit to adjust to Kafka's work freedom afforded to its own taste: he shifted some chapters, changed phrases and words and changed in some places the punctuation. The ' Brod ' editions of Kafka's works are also called the final editions called.

According to the Publisher's note[5of the English edition of the lock (The Castle, Schocken Books, 1998), is there in 1961 Malcolm Pasley managed most of the manuscripts of Kafka in the Bodleian Library of the University of Oxford. The original text of the process was later auctioned and is nowadays in the German literature archive [6to Marbach.

Pasley suggested after Kafka's manuscripts have brought together a troupe together (Gerhard Neumann, Jost Schillemeit including and Jürgen Born) that the romans had to restore to its original state. S. Fischer Verlag published the reconstructed novels[7]. Pasley was the editor for Das Schloß (the Castle) from 1982, and Der Prozeß (the trial) from 1990. Jost Schillemeit was the editor of Der Verschollene (Kafka's title, Max Brod called it America) from 1983. This critical texts can be found on the internet on the Kafka Project[8.

Since 2008 the State papers from Kafka disputed by Israel failed and the sisters Eva and Hava Hoffe, daughters of the late Secretary of Max Brod. They want to sell the material to the German literature archive in Marbach. Israel considers the legacy as cultural heritage. The papers are located in bank safes for Zurich and Tel Aviv.

An Israeli court on 14 October 2012 vonniste, that all remaining documents had to be transferred to the archives of the national library. Judge Talia Kopelman-Pardo, decided that "the writings of Kafka, just as the set-Brod, no gift could have to the daughters of Sarah Jane Vezina". [9]

Writing Style[Edit]Edit

Kafka's language is very precise and leans against the naturalism of Flaubert, whose L ' Éducation sentimentale to his favourite literature belonged. This contrasts with the almost dreamlike-strange of the world he evokes, but he with his Visual-realistic descriptions makes very credible. He is seen as a precursor of surrealism. One detects in its purist, sometimes surprising strict language influence of the Prague German, that by the minority position of the German speakers in Prague was a more or less contrived writing language, as well as of his legal formation. Also he was influenced by the Yiddish. In Kafka's texts are relatively few adjectives. Some conjunctions are remarkably often used: "If ..., then ... ', ' Nevertheless, ' and especially ' but ', with which different possibilities are opposite each other. The language of the fictional characters not usually differs from the language of the Narrator, making the stories get something droomachtigs; This impression arises in part because real and unreal events as well as facts and judgments/interpretations/thoughts on those facts, seamlessly into each other. The reader seems locked in the mind of the main character, but at the same time feels that things are ' different ' than this they will experience.


Critics have tried to categorize Kafka's works in different literary movements like the magic realismand modernism . The hopelessness and absurdity in Kafka's entire oeuvre can be found, are characteristic of theExistentialism, as, moreover, the responsibility of the individual. Some critics believe in Kafka's work was appearing a Marxist influence, mainly because of the critical comments at the bureaucracy, though not always exclude each other long Marxism and bureaucracy. Others see in this anti-bureaucratic posture a anarchist influence. Also Judaism and operation of Freud called in this context. Thomas Mann and Max Brod saw Kafka's oeuvre as a metaphysical quest for God.

Explicitly In the process is the theme of the debt to the order. Debt on Kafka should not, however, be seen in the ordinary sense — though it appears there sometimes on. If, however, the guards of main character Joseph k. say, that ' the authorities are attracted by the debt, such as the law says ', can blame rather be seen in the Jewish sense, nl. in the earthly imperfection of man. That Kafka's characters constantly in their ' ordinary life ' be disturbed, has this: because that ' guilt ' of man to move him, must actively search for the meaning of his existence. ' The law where all strive ' from the famous parable before the law in the processrepresents on the other hand, apparently the perfection, where man, that strives, apparently can see a gloss of: ' but he sees now onverdoofbaar a shine in the dark, which breaks forth from the door of the law. '

[9][10]A monument to Kafka inPrague

The themes of alienation and persecution are frequently emphasized as fundamental to the work of Kafka, so much, that this is also a contrary motion process. Many critics believe that Kafka's oeuvre not only the product is of a tortured and lonely writer, but many more intelligent and traceable to this day seem particularly rebellious, and not purely psychological ' complexes ' of the author. Kafka himself had to of psychological interpretations and psychoanalysis indeed have nothing. Nowadays more pointed out that Kafka and its surroundings — as evidenced by notes of Kafka's absurdist many friends could laugh at his stories. Vestdijk [10describes how he rolled on the ground together with M. laughter after reading of the first chapter of the process. Also by the writer himself is reported, that he laughed out loud when he read this chapter to his friends. In all its tragedy sounds here, for example, in many Jewish humor, which can be found in the stories of the Rabbi Baalschem, as collected by Martin Buber; stories that Kafka preferably las. Some believe that Kafka himself never has had how much his stories by a prediction of the reality turned out to be, and how much the laughing at us would fare[2]. From the conversations with Kafka by Gustav Janouch , however, the picture emerges of a man who is hyper aware of the possible consequences of every word, and as gently and precisely why exactly was there. Signs of the near future are apparently not escaped him: Kafka in the book predicts the destruction of Germany, almost twenty years before the Second World War.

Milan Kundera calls the surrealist humour of Kafka the main source of inspiration for writers and filmmakers as Federico FelliniGabriel García MárquezCarlos Fuentes and Salman Rushdie. Márquez has said that reading the metamorphosis for him has made it clear "that it is possible to write in a different way '. In the Dutch literature Kafka exerted influence onFerdinand Bordewijk, among others Willem Brakman and Willem Frederik Hermans.


Kafka is translated by different translators in the Dutch. Typically, the process for the translation of Alice of Nahuys used, for the lock that Guus Sötemann 's and for America and theCollected tales of Nini Brunt. For their new, modernized and flowing translation of the lock (1999, Querido) William of Wrath and Gerda Macdonald went out of Kafka's text as by Malcolm Pasley in 1982 is concerned.

The stories Kafka published during his lifetime saw are in Netherlands bundled in a hunger artist, while his posthumously published stories in the bundle in the building of the great wall of China to obtain. Both stories strands are bundled together with Kafka's three great novels in publications were the publishers Querido Franz Kafka: collected works (1977).

Film Adaptations[Edit]Edit


Years between parentheses indicate the year of publication and year values in square brackets to indicate the legislative year.

Published during Kafka's life[Edit]Edit

  • Gespräch mit dem better (1909) — interview with the praying man
  • Gespräch mit dem Betrunkenen (1909) — interview with the drunkard
  • Großer Lärm (1912) — loud noises
  • Betrachtung (1913) — Review
    Bundle with the stories: ' children on the road ', ' unmasking of a quarters Finder ', ' Suddenly going out ', ' Decisions ', ' The trip to the mountains, "" the misery of the Bachelor ', ' the merchant ', ' Scattered outward looking ', ' the way home ', ' passers-by ', ' the passenger ', ' Clothes ', ' rejection ', ' for reflection 22 for Mr riders ', ' the window on the street ', ' Desire to be Indian ', ' the trees ' and ' grief '.
  • Das Urteil (1913) — the judgement
  • Der Heizer (1913) — stoker
  • Die Verwandlung (1912) — the metamorphosis
  • In der penal colony (1919) — In the penal colony
  • Ein Landarzt (1919) — a rural doctor
    Bundle with the stories: ' The new lawyer ', ' A rural doctor ', ' on the Gallery ', ' an old writings ', ' For the law, "" jackals and Arabs ', ' my ', ' A visit to the the nearest village ', ' an imperial message ', ' the cares of a family man, "" Eleven sons ', ' A fratricide ', ' a dream ' and ' a report for an Academy '.
  • Der Kübelreiter (1921) — The rider on the coal scuttle
  • Ein Hungerkünstler (1924) — a hunger artist
    Bundle with the stories: ' first smart ', ' a small female, "" a hunger artist "and" Princess Josephine the singer, or the mice people ".

Published posthumously[Edit]Edit

Novels (all incomplete)[Edit]Edit

Short stories (optional)[Edit]Edit

  • Beschreibung eines Kampfes [1904-1905] — description of a fight
  • Hochzeitsvorbereitungen auf dem Lande [1907-1908] — wedding preparations in the countryside
  • Der Dorfschullehrer [1914-1915] — the village schoolmaster (Brods title: Der Riesenmaulwurf)
  • Blumfeld, ein älterer Junggeselle [1915] — a softy Blumfeld, Bachelor
  • Der Jäger Gracchus [1917] — Gracchus, Daniel
  • Beim Bau der chinesischen Mauer [1917] — in the construction of the great wall of China
  • Der Nachbar [1917] — the neighbor
  • Eine Kreuzung [1917] — a cross
  • Eine alltägliche Verwirrung [1917] — an everyday confusion
  • That Wahrheit über Sancho Pansa [1917] — the truth about Sancho Panza
  • Das Schweigen der Sirens [1917] — the silence of the Sirens
  • Das Stadtwappen [1920] — the city coat of arms
  • Prometheus [1920] — Poseidon
  • Small Fable [1920] — Small fable
  • Forschungen eines Hundes [1922] — Investigations of a dog
  • Das Ehepaar [1922] — the couple

Letters and diaries[Edit]Edit

[11][12]Handwritten letter to his father

Kafka wrote many letters to friends and family during his lifetime. He wrote to his father a long, unsent letter, which was published posthumously as Letter an den Vater and a particularly good source is to Kafka's inferiority feelings and to understand his fear of authorities. Of the letters to his loved ones are those to Felice the trade in SALW, which to Milena, Kafka during her relationship with a married woman was, the intiemst. The letters to Felice are situated in a private collection. The correspondence between him and his sister Ottilie (111 letters, post and postcards) makes a lot of clear souls life and is in 2011 by the heirs sold to the Deutsche literature archive in Marbach and the Bodleian Library in Oxford. The plan is to digitize them and to make publicly accessible[11. Between 1909 and 1923 Kafka kept a journal.


  • Expenditure of Kafka's drawings: Einmal ein großer Zeichner. Franz Kafka as bildender Künstler. Hrsg. von you Niels Bokhove. Marijke van Dorst. Prag: Vitalis, 2006. ISBN 3-89919-094-7. 2. Conn. Ausg., 2011. ISBN 978-3-89919-188-2. -Also in English, Spanish and Chinese translation.

Secondary literature[Edit]Edit

  • Kain, Jeannette,.. e.a. (red.) (2011). fifteen Coal kits and more: Herman Verhaar about Frans Kafka. Dutch Franz Kafka-Post, Amsterdam. 67 p. (Kafka-cahier; 3).
  • Engel, Manfred, Bernd Auerochs (Hrsg.) & (2010). Kafka-Handbuch: Leben-Werk-Wirkung. Metzler, Stuttgart. 561 p. ISBN 978-347-60216-7-0.
  • Calasso, Roberto (2005). K. /transl.: Els van der Pluijm. World Library, Amsterdam. 304 p. ISBN 90-284-2098-3. Vert. by: k. Adelphi, Milano, 2002. Essay
  • Klaus Wagenbach, (2000). Kafka's Prague: a journey leesboek /transl.: Theo Dada. Byblos, Amsterdam. 126 p. ISBN 90-5847-085-7. Transl. by: Kafkas Prag: ein Reiselesebuch. Wagenbach, Berlin, 1993. Guide to the places in Prague that play a role in life and work.
  • Anten, Hans (1997). The surrealist par excellence: Ferdinand Bordewijk about Franz Kafka. In: Kafka-katern: Franz Kafka-Official Gazette of the Dutch Post, jrg. 5 (1997) No. 4, p. 85-89. Dutch Franz Kafka-Post, Amsterdam. ISSN 0929-0877.
  • Klaus Wagenbach, (1991). Franz Kafka /transl.: j. Polak-Siliava. Squared, Utrecht. 176 p. ISBN 90-6481-135-0ISBN 90-6481-135-0. Original Due Date. Title: Franz Kafka in diaries, letters, documents and images. Moussault, Amsterdam, 1967. Vert In Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumentenby.:. Rowohlt Taschenbuch, Reinbek, 1964. Biographical sketch.
  • Benjamin, Walter,... and others (1987). Minutes of Franz Kafka /afterword: J.F. Fowler; Transl.: e. van der Loo... and others SUN, Nijmegen. 208 p. (Reading; 7) ISBN 90-6168-270-3. Essays
  • Brod, Max (1986/1974). Über Franz Kafka. 31.-35. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main Tsd., 1986. 406 p. ISBN 3-596-21496-3. Original Due Date. Ed.: 1974. Contains: Franz Kafka: eine BiographieFranz Kafkas Glauben und LehreVerzweiflung und Erlösung im Work Franz Kafkas.
  • Bajpai, Niels (1984). Traveller in shavers: Kafka in Netherlands and Flanders: overview, anthology and bibliography from Franz Kafka's work in the Dutch language area. Querido, Amsterdam. 409 p.ISBN 90-214 -5310-X.
  • Verbeek, Ernst (1984). Pay for Devils service: on the connection between person and work of Franz Kafka. Of Gorcum, Assen. 427 p. ISBN 90-232-2071-4. Psychoanalytic study on the link between life and work.
  • Janouch, Gustav (1981/1965). Conversations with Kafka /transl.: Nini Brunt. Harlequin, Westbroek, 1981. 192 p. ISBN 90- -020-X 6386. Original Due Date. Ed.: Querido, Amsterdam, 1965. Transl. by: Gespräche mit Kafka. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main, 1951. About the encounters of the author in the early 1920s with Kafka.
  • Verhaar, Herman (1975). Franz Kafka, or write from impotence. Scientific Publishing House, Amsterdam. 224 p., 8 p. pl. (Unofficial history, or History outside the book) ISBN 90-214-2772-9. List of works by and about Kafka: p. 199-218.

Kafka in Dutch[Edit]Edit

The Dutch word Kafkaesque Kafkaesque or is closely linked to the experiences of the characters in Kafka's world: Kafkaesque situations for example on enigmatic way frightening, threatening (especially by a overgeperfectioneerde society, which stand to tap the control of the individual, or over which the powerless individual has no control) (according to Van Dale). In line with this, the Belgian Government, a Web site in 2005 when the then Secretary of State for administrative simplification (Vincent Van Quickenborne) are proposals to overcome the bureaucracy collected and communicated. In 2006, the Kafkabrigade Knowledge country on to bureaucratic States investigations at the Dutch Government. Since 1 september 2010, the kafkabrigade an international institution that investigates and combats unnecessary bureaucracy[12.

For example, Kafkaesque situations mentioned in which someone somewhere is accused of, but not exactly, to waarván so that the conduct of a defence is impossible, in which one's ignorance of the accusation is not construed as indication for innocence but as evidence to the contrary, or in which someone is saddled with an impossible reverse burden of proof, for example with regard to negative facts. [13]

The first Dutch translation (and one of the first translations at all) of Kafka is the work of Paul van Ostaijen: five texts from Consideration published in 1925.

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