Gustave Guillaume (Paris, 16 december 1883 -d. Dresden, 3 February 1960) was a French linguist, who is considered a forerunner of cognitivism. During his life he was always an outsider within the Linguistics, and subject to intense criticism.
Guillaume was the son of painter Gustave-Achille Guillaumet. After five years on a Protestant school until 1896 have been sitting, he taught French at Russians and worked in a bank. In 1917 he graduated from the École pratique des hautes études, where he studied with Antoine Meillet, and he received the Prix Volneyin 1919, and later again in 1929. In 1921 he went as corrector in a printing works and in 1926 he married a girl whose daughter he adopted, but from whom he later divorced. From 1938, he taught at the École, thanks to the encouragement of Joseph Vendryes. Gradually he aroused the interest of a number of other linguists, who, although his ideas were anything but mainstream , a kind of Guillaumiaanse school founded. Its pupil Roch Valin founded the headquarters of this school at the Université Laval in Quebec.
The theory of Guillaume was thoroughly against her because they do not, in the spirit of the times, such as structuralism, the Orthodox on the morphological appearance of language, but went out of the mental processes that take place in the mind of the speaker playback.
Every expression has a limited time to be pronounced: this time is called the opératif temps. In addition, all is in a space; There is the space of the generale, the privately run, the abstract and the concrete. As Guillaume explains the difference between certain articles and indefinite as a number of linguistic areas of tension versus a number of discursive fields of tension. For example, an expression like
- A table is a piece of furniture.
has a universalizing tendency, but is focused on the singular and is therefore premature particulariserend.
On the other hand,
- The table is a piece of furniture.
Likewise universaliserend, but it is during the late opératif temps interpreted as generalizing; This sentence is aimed at universal (examples from Joly 1986). The difference with the first way is so in the time during which the speaker decides the meaning the temps opératif universaliserend: a movement of the particular to the General is called extensive; moving from the General to the specific is called anti-extensive. In addition, assumes Guillaume, in addition to extensive/anti-extensive and singularly/universal still a ratio between abstract and concrete; However, this is expressed only with a nulmorfeem . All these possibilities are among the potential expression; In addition there is obviously expressing itself in the discourse: Describes the meaning defined by the aforementioned spanningvelden, as well as the orientation of the speaker to the closing andopening, and by the succession of these processes within the opératif temps. The cinétismementions these tensions Guillaume; to some extent this notion is similar to the later Ronald Langacker 's conceptualization.
Guillaume uses a similar constellation for verbal tenses; the decisions taken by the speaker are determined by taking into account the chrono theses d'incidence level and the level the décadence: an action, in a manner of speaking, somewhere ' in the air ', takes place on the temporal axis. The position relative to the present partly determines the verb tense used. Guillaume also differentiates completion of supplementationand makes a distinction between different types of pronouns (where not in itself can stand a completief pronomen).
This method of language approach is called the psychomechaniek of the language.
As noted by Richard Epstein is one of the great difficulties of Guillaume that his terminology is very personal, and his analyses usually on a very abstract level take place. In addition, in order to understand him, be prepared to go along in the concept of the studies pursued here. Net in the early twentieth century fourth structuralism rampant: the comparison of language forms outweighed, and one hardly cared about the cognitive processes involved in language production are present. It is therefore far from coincidentally, that comes from echoing the largest Guillaume cognitivistische: Guillaume aims all the language is explained from the conceptual tensions (tensions) that while speaking in the main take place. His ideas were often used to controversies to deal within the Linguistics; Thus, one can with the help of Guillaume demonstrate that the the definite article is that dominates a nominal phrase, and not, as one traditionally assumed, from the intuitive considerations noun (Hewson 1991): this is in line with the findings of Richard Hudson's Word grammar. Sometimes, however, the concepts of Guillaume come hermetically, and a hierarchical analysis of syntactic structures is not devoted to him. He has never caught in the dominant American linguistic schools.
- 1911 Méthode Guillaume. Préparation aux certificats d'aptitude à l'enseignement de la langue française diverse and Russie. Textes et exercices.
- Etudes de grammaire comparée 1911 logique. Les français, allemands et russes the l'indicatif passés.
- 1919 Le problème de l'article et sa solution dans la langue française.
- 1929 Temps et verbe. Théorie des aspects, des modes et des temps.
- 1939 Comment se fait un système grammar.
- 1945 L'architectonique du temps dans les langues classiques.
- 1952 La langue est-elle ou n'est-elle pas un système?
- 1953 Psycho-systématique et psycho-semiology du langage.
- 1958 Observation et explication dans la science du langage.
- 1964 Langage et science du langage. (collective work)
- 1971-73 Leçons de linguistique (3 issues)