Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud (Ko) (Purmerend9 February 1890 - 5 april Wassenaar1963) was a Dutch architect. He is best known as a member of De Stijl art movement and champion of modern architecture. Its meaning as a pioneer of the New Build is similar to that of Gropiusand Le Corbusier , but he was one of the first to mid 30 's of this movement being turned away, because he felt that they had little to do with architecture. As a result, he lost the respect that he had while he was abroad in Netherlands still got many important commands, such as those for the National Monument and the monument on the military war cemetery grebbeberg. His brother Pieter Oud was Mayor of the municipality of Rotterdam.


[hide]*1 Biography


Old was the second son of the wine merchant and later Deputy Mayor of PurmerendHendrik Cornelis Old and his wife Neeltje Theodora Jackson. He originally wanted to be a painter , but followed at the urging of his father from 1903 to 1906 the training engineering at the Quellinusschool and from 1908 to 1910 a training at the National teacher training school for teachers Sign in Amsterdam, where he came into contact with The BaselBerlageKale and Lauweriks worked. From 1907 to 1908 he was a supervisor/draughtsman Intern at the Office of Joseph Cuypers and Jan Stuyt, likewise in Amsterdam. [1In 1909 , he was appointed teacher line drawing for the first classes at the Stadsteekenschool in Purmerend. [2at the end of 1910, he moved to Delft, as a student but could not find his niche there and then as a draughtsman-trainee left to Munich to study for several months under the leadership of the innovative architect Theodor Fischer (1862-1938). Fischer knew to convince of the Old sense of proportions and the ' designs on system ', which later would become the Foundation of old architecture concept, but like Berlage Fischer could not help him to formulate a consistent theory of the new direction. Are considered necessary, because it would make for a ' great advantage over the building masters of some decades back, since we already from the beginning our studies can arrange accordingly '.

[1][2]W.C. Brouwer.Detail, Cinema Schinkel, Purmerend.1912.

In 1913 he established himself as an architect in London, where he designed a large number of houses, mainly for family members. This enabled him to develop his own architectural idiom, that often went beyond his main examples of when, Berlage and kale. In 1912 he made during a slide night at Berlage home knowledge with American architecture of Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright. In 1913 exchanged Old rural Purmerend for the artisticLeadmore fruitful, where he established himself as an independent architect. Here he became a member of artist Association art for art's sake, where he befriended him Harm Kamerlingh Onnes, which gave access to the wealthy, artistic environments of Leiden, Katwijk and Noordwijk. In collaboration withDudok, whom he had met in Purmerend, he designed in 1914-1915 a small ' suburb ' in Leiderdorp, inspired by the garden cities of Raymond Unwin(1863-1940) and Hermann Muthesius (1861-1927). Also during this period he became captivated by the sculptor and ceramist Willem Coenraad Brouwer (1877-1933) and on the Arts and Crafts movement -based ideas about a return to a traditional society.

It was the artist Theo van Doesburg that year 1916 with the article ' the new movement in painting ' from the dream helped. Old found the consistent theory where he was looking. Van Doesburg's observations of modern art put Old to think about ' the future architecture and its architectural possibilities '. As a result, it came to a rupture with Brewer, and he took some more distance from Berlage and Muthesius. On 30 may 1916, two days after the publication of Van Doesburg's article, wrote him a letter, which was published later Old as ' About Cubism, Futurism, modern art, etc. ' (see Publications).Hit by Van Doesburg Are convinced of the need for a modern architecture, but about how that should look like, ran the opinions widely. Old stuck to theGesamtkunstwerk, in which the applied art and even the painting were subordinate to the architecture, while Van Doesburg was a proponent of community art, in which different art forms were equal to each other. However, the modern art old called architects closely and asked Van Doesburg also one day before the opening to include architects in Leidsche Art club The Sphinx. Via Van Doesburg, he came into contact with Piet Mondrian, with whom he exchanged of thought about the relationship between painting and architecture. Old wanted to ' build nothing that [...] no art would be ', while Mondrian was made that architecture could be only art if he did neoplasticism . Are opposed to it and would at some point against Mondrian have said: ' your life is painting, build the mine '. [3]

In 1916 he gave Van Doesburg command to design a stained-glass panel for his mayoral in Broek in Waterland. In 1917 he designed, as an exercise in the Cubist method, it houses complex Beach boulevard (see unexecuted designs). In 1917 the together old and Van Doesburg designed holiday home the spark in Noordwijkerhout.Autumn 1917 he was employee of the magazine by Van Doesburg founded the style. Even before the first issue of the style came out, it was already under fire, because the money from Germany would have received to promote the German influence in the neutral Netherlands. Old responded by writing that no aid was sought or received abroad and that pieces of foreign staff would be placed in order to more international cooperation and not to promote nationalist ideas. However, it lacks Old name under the first manifesto, the Manifesto I, style from november 1918. [4]

Although Old pronounces itself in The Style for the modern architecture, particularly the direction that Frank Lloyd Wright previously struck, his Old works from the period to 1924 strongly influenced by brick Granpré Molière traditionalisme of, for example, and he had a strong tendency to symmetry. [5Also was old, unlike for exampleRietveld very sparingly in his use of glass. This he regarded as a luxury in his early articles. [6]

When Henry Van de Velde from 1917 to 1926 lived in Wassenaar , were looking for Old him there regularly on. He shared his view that only innovative architecture could be revolutionary. Van de Velde was for Old what Berlage for most of his contemporaries, was no theoretician, but an activist. [7]

In January 1918 came Old, when he was 28, by mediation of Berlage, in the service of the Municipality House of Rotterdam. This service was founded in 1916 to the housing shortage, including the recently to solve workers flocked in to the port city. Old tried in his new position, his ideals regarding the relationship between the individual and society, which he shared with other members of the style, in practice in social-housing projects in the SpangenKief corner and the white village. His official position made his relationship with the style, however, is often difficult. [8]

[3][4]Theo van Doesburg. Stained glass panel for House block V and IX, Spangen, Rotterdam. 1918-1919.

In 1918 he asked Van Doesburg are rather solid and monotonous brick houses and blocks I and V in Spangen to liven up through stained glass panels and color design & fit-out. Autumn 1920 he asked Van Doesburg, who has since moved to Weimar was, also color designs for home block VIII and IX. These designs were even more radical and ' destructive ' than the first and although Old excited was, he could not get his employer in so far as they also perform. Then old asked him to adapt them to Van Doesburg wrote on november 3, 1921 Entweder-oder nichts ' back ' so angry. A year after he gave this letter not with Van Doesburg, or any Visual artist way, want to work together, because he felt that the color in the architecture had to be not too predominant. In addition, he could no longer find themselves in Van Doesburg's indiscriminate opposition to life. If the modern architecture by would break then this would happen in a natural way from according to the old life, and so he stopped the ' Cubist experiment '.Old did not believe in a revolutionary architecture with a program. Just like Mondrian believed old in a kind of spiritual evolution of man. The ensuing bitterness between the two led to Old no longer contributed to the Style. [9]

Old, however, remained fascinated by the onopzettelijkheid of the design of industrial engineering, such as factories and ocean liners, and saw here a harbinger of how the architecture was going to develop. Just like the compositions of Mondrian, should the architecture show no trace of the intentionality and especially not jerkily and coquettish as the Amsterdamse School. The role of the architect is also limited according to old to ' submission to the original equation to the border of self renunciation '.[10]

Beginning 1921 loved old for Architecture BuildingAssociation, where he was President of some time later, a reading, which as ' about the future architecture and its architectural possibilities ' appeared in the architectural weekly (see Publications). This article was a Bauhausteacher next year by Adolf Meyer translated into German and published in the journal Frühlicht. Also gave Old August 1923 a reading under the ' Bauhaus week ', which was later recorded in Old book Hollandische Architektur'Bauhausbückerfrom the series. [11After 1921 he found, however, that theorize about architecture makes no sense, be discussing it, what he often did in the ensuing period. [12]

Early 1920s also maintained close contact with the Old German architecture critic Adolf Behne, to whom he in October 1921 the command to design a villa in Grunewaldhad to thank. Moholy-Nagy acted as intermediary. When Behne in 1923 in Rotterdam gave a lecture, he suggested him to kindred spirit Otto Bartning (1883-1959). [13]

In the white village is a replica of the Executive Board since 1989 shebang starting from 1922 in the district had stood until it was demolished in the hunger winter in the hunt for fuel wood. The Executive Board Shack is a small but fine example of the architecture of old and the influence he encountered some of the style.

For year 1923 he met the Russian artist El Lissitzky, who was for a lecture tour in Netherlands. Later that year, he participated with at least one design (factory with built-in offices; see Designs) part in the architectuurtentoonstellig of the style in Paris. About that time also found the first contact with BauhausDirector Walter Gropius , which him on 15 October 1923 with a request to inform him of the modern architecture in Netherlands. [14]

Around 1924 he designed a row in Hoek van Holland homes ' concrete ' workers. These are highly standardized and could be repeated infinitely. Concrete turned out much more expensive than brick. [15In the houses are The many features of the style-movement. The homes in Hoek van Holland today are a national monument.

Old Café the Union was built in 1925 on a wasteland in the center of Rotterdam provided it after 10 years was demolished. [16it remained there until the end 15 years in may 1940 was destroyed in the bombing of Rotterdam.

In 1925 Adolf Behne called for a boycott of the magazine Wasmuths Monatshefte of Werner Hegeman, due to its scathing criticism of Berlage and Van de Velde. Old saw this as a waste of time and refused to take part, making his contact with Behne ended. [17]

In 1926 became old in Rotterdam presented to Siegfried Giedion. Long time had strong criticism on his book Bauen in Frankreich and reproached him formalism, romantic displayed and a total lack of attention to public housing. Old and became friends, but remained about architecture Giedion was no longer spoken. Likewise in 1926 was old by Arthur Lehning asked as an editor for the magazine i10. Old had its reserves. ' It would be me [...] in a very unpleasant political League stopped to be [...], where I feel nothing for [...] I feel finally nothing for what political party ', he wrote on 7 October 1927 to Lehning. He was, after all, still commune official from Rotterdam. After a reassuring answer of Lehning, appeared in 1927 the article ' Direction ' in i10. However, the sheet went down In 1929. [18]

Old competition design for a new exhibition at the Coolsingel in Rotterdam was rejected by juror Berlage. This was a big disappointment for old, especially as Berlage had always supported the Amsterdam School , and old felt that not they, but above all he Beerlage continued work. ' It is I always deep-in a poignant disappointment to see you move, if you felt at home, between a category of architects, where I nothing else against the worst, namely that they have than our profession, which I see you learned above all by the beautiful, down to a level, which the the name architecture in no way more earns ', he wrote on October 11, 1927 to Berlage. From 1933 he regarded Berlage as overcome history. However, his international fame grew. In may 1927 he was asked to follow Wilhelm Kreis at the Staatliche Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf. In consultation with the municipality of Rotterdam, he hit the offer, however,. [19]

In 1927 he designed for the Stuttgart Weissenhof estate exhibition in model homesone by one. Just like the homes could this be repeated infinitely in Hoek van Holland.For these houses he designed also a set tube furniture, which formed the basis for furniture that he designed specially for Villa Allegonda . In the 1930s he designed furniture for Metz & Co with trim designed by Bart van der Leck. [20]

The Weissenhof estate exhibition marked the beginning of the international style. Old, the international style, or the new architecture, such as the Dutch variant called, never fully adopted, but he was highly respected as a pioneer of this direction though. Are solutions to the housing problem were abroad, particularly in Germany and theUnited States, but also in England and France, published and discussed. [21by the end of the 1920s he stood, along with Ludwig Mies van der RoheWalter Gropius andLe Corbusier, internationally known as one of the four greats of the architecture.

The Weissenhof estate exhibition also led to the creation of the CIAM. Old was initially excited about this initiative. When it became apparent that also Taste and organizer Giedion Dudok had invited for the first Congress in La Sarraz in June 1928, handles old and Van Eesteren in and deleted the guest list were Wils and Dudok. In the long run were both old, Tribe as Van Eesteren prevented Berlage , which was the only one who represented Netherlands in La Sarraz. Giedion tried Old via Karl Moser (1860-1936) to move still to come, but when Old learned that Giedion Congress on almost militaristic way had imposed his own views on it and organized, making some modernist currents were excluded from participation, he saw off. Long time had it all very different suggested. ' You know the admiration I have greeted the Congress of Sarraz: once happy with my colleagues together, talk a little (not too much and not too heavy), a little hiking in the beautiful surroundings, a little dance, some conclusions of general application and then: end ', he wrote on 18 August 1928 to Giedion. Also of the members of the CIAM was Are not impressed. ' What have I actually with an unendowed hanged to make as Hamilton ? What with Haring? What Mayactually with the Quantitätspesser ? What with the delicate flower, Corbusier? '. [22]

[5][6]Le CorbusierDouble House 14/15, Weissenhof estate exhibition, Stuttgart.1927

Long time had strong criticism on Le Corbusier's contribution to the Weissenhof estate exhibition. He described it as ' a letter to Giedion Theatre in 1927, at times, sure, but for the development [of modern architecture] meaningless and dangerous. Most serious [form of] romance '. Old found building on pilotis ' nonsensical ', because the resulting space under the building no clearly useful, but above all, he found that Le Corbusier's ' floating ' architecture no longer rooted in modern life. His designs were only affordable for the rich. This took a long time not even a year after the construction of the Weissenhof estate exhibition away from Le Corbusier. [23]

In 1928 he was asked to follow Karl Moser as professor to the Eidgenössische Hochschule in Zurich. Once again, Old, because his passion for building seemed incompatible with a position in education. Also, he was asked that year as an independent architect, as for a Dreifamilienhaus in Brno and a second renovation of Villa Allegonda in Katwijk. [19]

About 1929 he renewed his contact with Van Doesburg. He helped Van Doesburg's widow after his death Nelly van Doesburg with the editors of the dernier numero of the style, that was issued in 1932 in memory of Van Doesburg. [24]

In 1930 by architect Philip Johnson visit got Old and architectural historian Henry-Russell Hitchcock. Both were particularly impressed by Old homes in Hoek van Holland. Hitchcock wrote the first monograph of old, j.j.p. Oud (Paris, 1931), and Johnson gave him a place of honor in the exhibitionThe International Style: Architecture since 1922 in the MoMA in 1932, who established his name in the United States as one of the pioneers of the new architecture. [25]

In 1931, he made a great design for residential houses in the Blijdorparea, consisting of several elongated, four-story apartment buildings in strips with cantilevered balconies and large Windows unusual for Old rows. It is fully in line with the principles of the New Build, although the most militant architects of that flow possible objected against the private gardens on the ground floor. Perhaps thereby went to Jo van den Broek. In 1933 left Are the now reorganized Municipal Housing of Rotterdam[26and established himself as an independent architect. All the late 1920s he had more than enough of public housing. ' I would like to [...] a station or something else in common, make great: do you know what for me? ', he wrote in 1928 to Giedion. Later recognized long time the existence of an architectural hierarchy, which he compared with the family. ' As little as the child in the family possesses equal rights as the father (and this will prove if something good again soon!), so little has the House in architecture the same rights as the Council House (which also will prove again soon) ', he wrote Alfred Roth on 5 August 1946. Old felt that he could renew the representative building in the same way as the home. Examples include the design a Volksuniversiteit (1924-1927) and a fair (1926).

Old saw a fundamental distinction between the terms ' construction ' and ' architecture '. He was not happy with the name ' new build '. On 11 March 1934 he wroteRietveld that he as a "a cowardly and rot Word for ' new architecture ' ' was made. Old also had major problems with definition of building socialism. This led to him on 25 May 1933 the Board of Building the following wrote: ' the principles on aesthetic area, for which the Board desires to stand up, to a wide spectrum that they in certain political constellations-whatever-could be accommodated. The link of this nature, which the Board seeks to take effect in the latter time, results in a reduction of the intended spiritual beliefs, which I didn't recognize by my fellow Member membership juischt Wahid as ', with which he quit his membership. [27]

Old continued not only in for modern architecture. In 1935 he succeeded Berlage on as a member of the Commission for the preservation of monuments. [1]

In June 1936 he got a visit from MoMA-Director, A.H. Barr, who offered him a job at the Graduate School of Design from the prestigious Harvard University and asked him to design an extension to the MoMA. But also this time, Old, because he'd rather wanted to stay in Netherlands, ' where his position, as a Prophet in his own country, rapidly develops, "says Barr. Are suggested for Mies van der Rohe as education innovator at the Graduate or Design, which the Harvard into a ' Bauhaus '. Old did so, more and more outside the modern movement and was now indeed a lonely Prophet in his own country. His view that architecture originated from modern life, stood diametrically opposed to materialistic-functionalist ideas of the international style and ' this has yielded me a somewhat peculiar and isolated position among modern architects and it is also for that reason that I have never may decide to "Cirpac" [Committee of the CIAM] to take part, because I think this is purely materialistic set ' (letter to Fred Forbatdecember 7, 1935). He also found that the international style the artistic principles of the avant-garde had squandered. ' Let all that theory, all the advertising, all that cipher and accountability; In short: let all those brakes once let go and just do it. Now, let's do it ' delicious '. Build a House, simply, as one would find it enjoyable to live in. Don't think of the good behavior as theorist and if necessary cross against the principle, but just really: from the inside out ', he wrote on May 28, 1941 to build up. [28]

In the mid-1930s saw Are the new architecture as completed and he found that the ' by whining about now had to make place for principles already found it by working on results achieved, "as he wrote on 3 december 1935. In this he was not alone. Other architects were having difficulty with the lack of an artistic dimension of functionalism.Sybold van Ravesteyn went to ' enrich the furthest ' by the architecture with Baroque elements. However, nothing in here and found that old saw Of Ravensteyns interiors ' the spirit of my old aunt ' radiated, rather than a ' Davidson-full of shaping the lives of our time '. Old first ' worked ' by design was a competition design for a new City Hall in Amsterdam: symmetrical layout and awarded a high column with an allegorical female figure. Giedion, who visited him in July 1938 in Rotterdam was disappointed and wrote on 29 July 1938 to Moholy-Nagy that old ' on a dangerous way of response', and on 31 August to Cor van Eesteren: ' it was a tough evening. [...] We must take care to make him! ' However, nothing of this criticism to old withdrew. His design for the headquarters of Shell in the Hague from 1938 was even more exuberant. It's almost a manifesto against the orthodoxy of functionalism, but ' better ' than really ossified wrong tried, he wrote on 16 June 1946 to Alfred Roth. [29]

During and after the war broke the functionalism of Gropius and Giedion, particularly in the United States finally by. There was a kind of universal modernism. As a result, against his principles, he allowed himself to be lured into writing a manifesto. In this manifesto, dated 11 May 1946, States that ' so far was the problem of modern architecture: 1. clear and without condition to capture the requirements that a construction works must meet with regard to practical use and construction. 2. to establish these requirements without going through the past in a form that is a direct expression of to solve issue. As engineers do that; as the genius this does! That way we have now, in the best offices and houses, are achieved at the level of a good locomotive, a good car or a good dental drill. Sound technical forms, which were in their honesty of cultural value! [...] It's a start: not, as some architects seem to think, already an end. It forms the basis for a new architecture: a significant part of its fundamental concepts, but where there is very little literature on exists! It is no good build, but build emotionally. Still no: architecture! '. [30]

[7][8]Wallace Harrison et al. UN Headquarters, New York. 1947-1953.

The success of post-war modernism ' universal ' was primarily due to the propaganda of the MoMA. The MoMA retrospective also organized, which Is itself shut out felt. ' I worse me [...] very much to the modern architecture, in which the emotional element as strong and I think the Americans lost the typical representatives, which it still good also because they have seemingly-by their freshness-the equivalent to their side. [...] The architecture [is] fresh, but empty ', he wrote on 14 april 1956 to J.J. friend. Also he turned against it in functionalism common teamwork, as was the case at the United Nations headquarters in New York. Scoring acclaim from another pioneer of modernism, who later became his own direction, Frank Lloyd Wright, to whom he dedicated a 1952 exhibition at the Ahoy . ' I made itself all objection to the way the building is conceived on bureaucratic way and to my satisfaction I heard that you have expressed your dissatisfaction in an article ', he wrote Wright on 1 June 1948.

Also at the UNESCObuilding in Paris he sought support in Wright. ' I would like to advocate a thing or two in the press (or in the UN) for more idealism in the new building-for more architecture. You and I (and Mumford) does not send a few words to the press as a type of balancing sound? Why must the Giedion-gang take the lead again? ', he wrote him on 25 May 1952. [31]

[9][10]National Monument, Dam Square, Amsterdam. 1956 (disclosure).

In the meantime the respect for long time in the United States dropped to a low point. On The Style-the great exhibition at the MoMa, which took place in 1952, was long time hardly represented – only his portable building, factory, Kief corner Church and Café were shown the Union – and in 1955 by the Masters of Modern Art MoMA issued was missing his name even whole. This went Is not unnoticed. He asked Johnson on 28 August 1955 by letter for clarification. He wrote, "I introduced Cubism in architecture in 1917 and 1919 and you are aware of the impact posed by the [exhibition] ' International Style ' architecture of 1932 at the Museum of Modern Art. You also know that Cubist architecture and later "De Stijl" were of great benefit for Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe and Gropius. While Gropius had or has no own style because he is more a teacher than a creator. [...] If America not of my future holds, it could at least show respect for my past, that also has helped his architects '.

Bruno Zevi and also the art historians Hans Jaffé, who both researched the style and Old role in it bagatelliseerden, were given a solid letter. For all these misunderstandings once and for all to help wrote Old Mein road in "De Stijl", in which he also tried to show that he is starting from the creation of the Style until then, other than it was believed, had developed in a straight line. [32]

[11][12]Monument on the military war cemetery grebbeberg.

Although his role after the war abroad virtually was played out, was old in Netherlands still a celebrity. He got honorable commands, such as for the National Monumentand the monument on the military war cemetery grebbeberg. From the reconstruction of the genesis of these post-war projects, as for the savings bank and Office Building The Utrecht in Rotterdam, the Bio-convalescent home in Arnhem, shows how old were searching for new partnerships with artists and technicians during the design process. On the position of the architect was Old confident: the architect had despite the increasing bureaucracy and professionalization of advisors, as only the overview and was undisputed in the lead. [33]

It must have been particularly painful for long to see how modernism in the course of the 1950s, died a slow death. The CIAM stopped to exist and Giedion even called for a ' new monumentality '; In Word and intent the same as where Are all in the mid-1930s for pleaded. Outraged he wrote in 1962 to k. Waigumo: ' have you ever seen something banalers than the ' Ambassy ' in Athens, which according to Mr. Gropius the Grecian tradition modern tries to keep '; and about the design for the Boston City Hall: ' and beautiful that the Gropiussen that way. [...] When I think how I in 1938 in the ' Shell ' al ' klassiceerde ' and a lot of conscientious fuller, while I was black and blue when every name in the book (if you can say so), then snap I sometimes not much of! '

His last project was the Dutch Congress Palace in the Hague from 1956. Old died at the age of 73. He was married since 27 december 1918 with Annie Dinaux and had with her one son, the architect Hans Old.


Main Publications[Edit]Edit


See for a complete list of the publications of the old article Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud on Wikisource.


  • ' Architecture with the pen ', architectural weekly magazine, 35th year, number 6 (February 6, 1915): p. 44-45. See [6].
  • ' About Cubism, Futurism, modern architecture, etc. ', architectural weekly, 37th year, number 20 (16 september 1916): p. 156-157. See [7].
  • ' Thoughts on architecture ', Memorial book issued to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Association of Students of normal school for Teekenonderwijs.Amsterdam, [1917]: p. 36-38.
  • ' The monumental townscape ', the style, year 1, number 1 (October 1917): p. 10-11. See Digital Dada Archive.
  • ' Art and machine ', the style, first year, number 3 (January 1918): p. 25-27. See Digital Dada Archive.
  • ' Architecture and standardization in the mass construction ', the style, first year, number 7 (May 1918): p. 77-79. See Digital Dada Library.
  • ' Architectural consideration (see teekeningen). A. Mass construction and street architecture (see teekening p. 81). B. reinforced concrete and architecture (teekening p. 83) ', the style, 2nd year, number 7 (May 1919): p. 79-84. See Digital Dada Library.
  • ' Orientation ', the style, 3rd year, number 3 (december 1919): p. 13-15. See Digital Dada Library.
  • ' Building homes in (armed)-concrete ', architectural weekly, 41st year, number 15 (10 april 1920): p. 89-94. See [8], [9], [10] and [11].
  • ' Building in (armed)-concrete. II ', architectural weekly, 41st year, number 23 (5 June 1920): p. 131-136. See [12], [13], [14] and [15].
  • ' About the future architecture and its architectural possibilities ', architectural weekly, 42nd year (11 June 1921): p. 147-160. See [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21],[22] and [23].
  • ' Construction art and Cubism ', The Bouwwwereld, 21st year, number 32 (August 9, 1922): p. 245. Response to Theo van Doesburg. ' The architect j.j.p. Oud "Predecessor" der "kubisten" in architecture? ', the building industry, 21st year, number 30 (July 26, 1922): p. 229.
  • ' Digression in some pictures, architectural weekly, 43rd year, number 43 (28 October 1922): pp. 418-424. See [24], [25], [26] and [27].
  • [without title], the style, 5th year, number 12 (1922): pp. 207-208.
  • ' Semi-detached aphorisms on art and architecture ', the overview, number 15 (1923): p. 41.
  • ' Art, crafts and Maschine ', Thüringer Allgemeine Zeitung (13 July 1924).
  • ' Entwicklung der Baukunst in Holland Vergangenheit moderns: That, Schweizerische BauzeitungGegenwart, Zukunft ',, 83rd year, number 12 (1924): pp. 134-137.
  • "Erziehung zur Architektur ', Social ' compensation associations, 5th year, number 4 (1925): pp. 25-28.
  • Bekentnisse eines Architekten ' nein ' yes und:, architectural weekly, 46th year, number 35 (29 August 1925): pp. 431-432. See [28] and [29].
  • [without title], the style, Series VII, number 79/84 (1927): pp. 39-40.
  • ' Direction ', i10, 1st year, number 2 (February 1927 (?)): p. 2.
  • ' Housewives ' and Architects, i10, 1st year, number 2 (February 1927 (?)): pp. 44-46.
  • ' International architecture ', i10, 1st year, number 6 (1927): pp. 204-206.
  • ' Adapted by the environment ', i10, 1st volume, number 10 (1927): pp. 349-350.
  • ' Wohin führt das neue Bauen: Kunst und Standard, i10, 1st year, number 11 (1927): pp. 385-386.
  • Flache in Holland ', ' Das Das Neue Frankfurt, 1st year, number 7 (1926/1927): pp. 189-192.
  • ' Ein tägliches Problem des Städtebaus ', Berliner Börsen-Courier (november 4, 1928).
  • ' Das fliessende Leben. Der natürliche Road des Architekten ', Innen-dekoration, 39th year (May 1928): p. 209.
  • ' Observations of j.j.p. Oud, Shinkenchiku, 4th year, number 1 (1928): p. 52.
  • ' Modern architecture ', NRC, 86th year, no. 198 (Friday 19 July 1929): p. 2.
  • ' Die städtische Siedlung "The Kief corner" in Rotterdam ', Die Form, 5th year (1930), no. 14, pp. 357-369.
  • ' The £ 213 House. A solution to the re-attitude problem for rock-bottom incomes in Rotterdam ', The Studio, 101st year, no. 456 (March 1931): pp. 175-179.
  • ' Form and freedom ', Building, 1st year (1946), number 3, p. 5.
  • ' Dare and dare not in architecture ', Building, 1st year (1946), number 29, pp. 613-614, 620.

Explanations to his work[Edit]Edit

  • ' Cinema Theatre in Purmerend ', architectural weekly, 34th year, number 6 (February 7, 1914): p. 64-66. See [30] and [31].
  • Dudok, old, "workers ' homes to Leiderdorp, architectural weekly, 36th year, number 11 (July 10, 1915): p. 85-87. See [32] and [33].
  • ' Cottage in Blaricum ', architectural weekly, 37th year, number 2 (May 13, 1916): p. 23-24. See [34] and [35].
  • ' Rebuilding the Huize "Allegonda" Katwijk aan Zee ', architectural weekly, 39th year, number 5 (2 February 1918): p. 29-30. See [36] and [37].
  • ' Municipal People's homes, polder "Spangen", Rotterdam ", architectural weekly, 41st year, number 37 (11 september 1920): p. 219-222. See [38], [39] and [40].
  • ' Design for a residential house in Berlin ', architectural weekly, 43rd year, number 35 (2 september 1922): pp. 341-344. See [41], [42] and [43].
  • ' Municipal house building "Spangen" in Rotterdam ', architectural weekly, 44th year, number 2 (January 13, 1923): pp. 15-20. See [44], [45], [46], [47], [48] and [49].
  • ' Semi-permanent housing "Oud-Mathenesse" Rotterdam ', architectural weekly, 45th year, number 43 (October 25, 1924): pp. 418-421. See [50] and [51].
  • ' A cafe ', architectural weekly, 46th year, number 31 (1 August 1925): p. 397-400. See [52], [53] and [54].
  • ' House building to Hoek van Holland ', in: I.M. Zillur Rahman's & h. cover (editing) The Green-White-Green Book. Published on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the people's University in Rotterdam.Rotterdam, 1927, pp. 38-42.
  • 'S comment to a property type of Werkbundausstellung ', "die Wohnung" Stuttgart 1927, i10, 1st year, number 11 (1927): pp. 383-384. See dbnl.
  • ' Explanation of the design motto: X for a fair in Rotterdam ', architectural weekly Architectura, 50th year, number 6 (February 9, 1929): pp. 41-43. See [55] and [56].
  • ' Head office in the Hague ', Import Company Bataafsche architectural weekly Architectura, 63rd year, number 2 (december 1945): pp. 14-21. See [57], [58], [59] and [60].

Major building designs[Edit]Edit


See for all designs of Old the article list of designs of Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud

Competition Designs[Edit]Edit

  • Exhibition Centre, Coolsingel, Rotterdam. 1926. Motto ' X '. [34]

Not run[Edit]Edit

  • Design for a housing complex, beach boulevard, Scheveningen. 1917. shown as annex II to the style, first year, no. 1 (October 1917). See Digital Dada Library.
  • Design for a factory with built-in offices [in Purmerend]. Circa 1919. Shown as annex VI of the style, 3rd year, number 5 (March 1920). See Digital Dada Library.
  • Kallenbach House, Berlin. 1922. shown in architectural weekly, 43rd year, number 35 (2 september 1922): p. 344. See [61].
  • House Building, Blijdorp, Rotterdam. 1931.
  • National Life Insurance bank, Velperplein. Arnhem. 1951.
  • Service Building Dutch Reformed Church, Brussels, The Hague. 1951.
  • Province House Zuid-Holland, The Hague. 1952.
  • Municipality Library, Kief Corner, Rotterdam. 1957.
  • Overseers House Hoge Veluwe, Otterlo. 1958.
  • Extension City Hall, Groningen. 1961.


[15][16]Work Chair. 1950.*Extension Office Shell, wassenaarseweg 80, the Hague [in collaboration with Hans old; not performed]. 1959.

  • Bio-convalescent home, Wekeromseweg 8, Arnhem. 1952-1960.
  • Office building De Utrecht, Coolsingel 75-77, Rotterdam. 1954-1961.
  • Dutch Congress Centre, Churchill square 10, the Hague [in collaboration with Hans old]. 1956-1969.
  • Town Hall, Almelo [in collaboration with Hans old]. 1962-1973.


Typographic designs[Edit]Edit

  • The magazine Cover overview, nr. 21. 1924. [35]
  • Book Cover Rotterdam. Outlines or Extensions and Housing. 1924. 1925. [36]
  • Cover magazine the Neubau, 7th Edition, no. 9 (1925). 1925.
  • Letterhead, envelope and cover for The Building. Democratic magazine for Netherlands and India. 1935-1936.

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