Marcel Duchamp (Blainville-Crevon, 28 July 1887 - Neuilly-sur-Seine, 2 October 1968) was a French artist. In his career he worked initially as a painter and later as a sculptor. He worked as a futurist, surrealistand Dadaist . In his later life he was chess player with the title Grandmaster. Duchamp was the first to a barely touched industrial product presented as a work of art. His work was a major influence on subsequent developments in the modern art as conceptual art and minimal art.
Marcel Duchamp was born in an artistic family with his equally famous initially brothers Raymond Duchamp-Villon and Jacques Villon. In 1902 he began to paint in Neo-Impressionist style. From 1910 he began to the style of Paul Cézanne to hang and he joined the Puteaux group of his brother Jacques, for a time he also painted in the style of Cubism. However, In January 1912, Duchamp forced his descendant un escalier Now (' Nude descending the staircase ')) to remove from an exhibition of the Salon des Indépendants in Paris, after which he withdrew itself from the Puteaux group . A year later in descendant un escalier Now caused big fuss on the Armory Showin New York, which Duchamp international fame.
Relevant to the understanding of his humorous way of making art is that at the beginning of his career he regularly drew cartoons for magazines. Duchamp has not himself in his whole life of his art, although he maintained his ' large glass ' though the people who gave birth to him after his first arrival in the US granted shelter.
After 1913 he turned off of painting and mounted a bicycle wheel on a stool (Roue de bicyclette). This work he made purely for his own pleasure; It was not exhibited at that time, but in retrospect it was still considered an early run-up to the Dada movement. In 1915 he moved to New York.
Duchamp was the first to an everyday object presented as a work of art (a readymade). This was a milestone for the contemporary visual arts and Duchamp called this art-philosophical questions about the nature and function of art.Fountain, 1917
Fountain was an industrially manufactured urinal-lying presented, titled and signed "r. Mutt" 1917-submitted anonymously for a juryloze in 1917 that Duchamp exhibition in New York, of which he himself was co-organizer. One did not, however, the submission seriously and thought it was going to be an affront to the Organization of the exhibition. The work was therefore denied. The artwork was almost a hundred years later, in 2004, by a panel of five hundred art experts voted most influential artwork of the 20th century.
In 1923 he declared his first great work La Mariée mise à nu par ses célibataires, même (' the large Glass ') with which he started in 1915 after his arrival in New York, finally was unfinished. With this work, an oil painting on glass plates with thread and fabric, he was more affiliated with the surrealism.
Afterwards, he gave the art on to not without merit to go chess, in which he won even a Grandmaster title . He went back toFrance and left again only after the German occupation of France to the us. He worked until his death In secret to it: 1. la chute d'eau/2. le gaz d'éclairage, an installation consisting of a door with two peepholes that gave on a landscape containing an erotic female nudity, resting on a bundle of firewood, that holds a gas lamp. Both great works can be seen in Philadelphia. Both works have included the invisible forces and workings of human sexuality as a topic, but imagining on complementary ways. Also, he worked on a multiple consisting of a ' box ' in a suitcase (La boite-en-valise) filled with 69 miniaturized reproductions of his earlier work. 
Duchamp can, along with Picasso, Matisse and Kandinsky as the grandfather of the contemporary art be considered, and especially the newer art forms as conceptual art and installations , where he goes in all directions (even in the direction of the video art, with his film Anemic Cinema) key steps.
Less well-known but certainly worth mentioning are also the graphic designs that Duchamp to his name. The attention to this aspect of his work is rather recent, by a publication in 1999. Duchamp's fascination with the printed image took care of works such as Rendez-vous de Dimanche, Cahiers d'Art and posters for own (and other) work.
- Now the descendant l'escalier (Cubist-Futurist painting by lady who trap goes off, 1912)
- Bicycle wheel on pedestal (a bicycle wheel with fork mounted on white painted stool, 1913)
- Fountain (ready made, a urinal lying on a pedestal, 1917)
- LHOOQ (reproduction of the Mona Lisa, with mustache)
- La boite-en-valise (multiple with reproductions from his entire oeuvre, 1936)