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Theo van Doesburgpseudonym of Christian Emil Marie Küpper, (Utrecht30 August 1883 – Davos7 March 1931) was a Dutch artist. He is known as one of the most important representatives and propagandists of the abstract art in the 20th century. To this end, he founded the magazine in 1917 the style on. in addition to painter Van Doesburg was also active as a poet (see I.K. Bakhsh), roman writer (see Aldo Camini), typographerphotographerInterior Designer and architect. Van Doesburg propagated a world in which the arts a more uplifting, a-political and mutually equivalent took place within the theoretical framework of the neoplasticism. To do this, he sought affiliation with the international avant-garde.

ContentEdit

[hide]*1 early life

Life Course[Edit]Edit

Van Doesburg was the seventh and last child of the German photographer Wilhelm Küpper and his wife Henrietta Margadant. His birthplace was on T Street 13 in Utrecht.[1a year after the birth of his father's Picture Studio Emiles went bankrupt and he left for Germany. In september 1884 went the remaining families in the watchmaker Theodorus Doesburg live in Amsterdam with whom his mother married on 19 July 1893. [2]

Emile was a difficult pupil in elementary school. Because he wanted to do nothing other than read, he was expelled from school. Secondary education or further education he never completed. Though he visited the School for a short period of vocal and Dramatic Art of Cateau Esser in Amsterdam, but the desire grew to painter and/or writer.His first painterly attemps date back to 1899 and he followed a few painting lessons about 1902-1903 of the painter Adri Ganesh. [3the rest of his life he remained self-taught. He signed his first work with the name of his stepfather: Theo Doesburg, where he in 1902 the added Insert "of".

[1][2]Theo van Doesburg. Self-portrait with hat. 1906.==="Spiritual Wagner '[Edit]===

Van Doesburg in addition to painting and literature also devoted himself to the study of sociologyphilosophy and ethics. But politics and religion also had his interest, as witnessed by its membership of the free-thinking Democratic League and its accession to the reformed church. In this quest he learned about 1903 the likewise self-taught poet Agnita Feiscommon, to whom he dedicated one of his first poems in september 1904. [4]

The paintings from his early period are often brownish and thick put on and are in line with the Amsterdam School. In the beginning he painted mainly landscapes. But to satisfy thelandscape painting him less and less. From a humanistic-Christian position, possibly influenced by Van Gogh, he interested for the ' suffering and toiling ' man. To become proficient in the portraiture he made numerous self-portraits, which he likes to be as ' spiritual ', with CAP and workman workwear, portrayed. The study of man, however, aroused the need to keep a mirror for this, which resulted in a series of lithographs to caricatural example of the French caricaturist Honoré Daumier, which appeared in 1910 in his literary debut, the masks off! .

[3][4]Johannes verhulststraat 33 (left).

Van Doesburg's parents accepted his relationship with Feis, whereby he in 1907 left the family home without steady income. With the help of his friend, the amateur painter Christian Leibbrandt, he managed to build up an existence for themselves. In 1908 took place in the Haagsche kunstkring his first exhibition and from 1908 to 1912 he earned his money by giving drawing lessons to Johanna Paik. [5]In 1909 went Feis and Van Doesburg cohabitation on the Johannes Verhulst Street 33 and on 4 May 1910 followed their marriage. It was a marriage on the basis of equality. Feis kept her maiden name and the tasks were clearly divided, but all their married life was subordinate to both their spiritual development. [6]

[5] [6]
A first clue how much Van Doesburg was impressed by Kandinsky is a self-portrait from 1913, which he portrayed exactly as if Kandinsky: not as skilled painter with working clothes and painter spet, as before, but as an independent, self conscious world citizen. [7]

Awareness[Edit]Edit

Starting from the middle of 1912 wrote Van Doesburg reviews and art reviews for various magazines. That way he came for the first time in full contact with modern art. Initially he had little on the art of cubists as Picasso or Braque and Kandinsky's abstract work. However, in 1913 there suddenly an end after reading the Kandinsky's Rückblicke, in which they look back on his development as a painter from 1903-1913. Van Doesburg became convinced of the "spiritualization" of art, that is, pure art comes from the spirit and not from the world around us. True-to-life imitation of reality had therefore little sense according to Kandinsky. In addition he took Kandinsky's idea about that future art from the art of the past to predict. Van Doesburg established that the art became increasingly abstract. [8Van Doesburg initially had great difficulty to the "spiritualization ' reality. The painting girl with buttercups, which he completed in 1914, is his first attempt in that direction. Although the performance is still recognizable, notes Van Doesburg on that he has used this only as a motif. [9]

[7][8]Girl with buttercups. 1914. Utrecht, Centraal Museum.

Almost immediately after the outbreak of the first world war was Van Doesburg — as sergeant-facteur K — with the country again billeted on the Amsterdam Regte Heide to the Belgian border in North Brabant. The gruesome eyewitness accounts of Belgian refugees shocked him violently and he lost all his confidence in man and even in the faith as he knew it. At the ' front ' was not much to do and so he wrote countless magazine articles, poems and letters, in which he expresses his disgust for this useless war expressed in his eyes. On the Regte Heide he learned the drachtster Shoemaker-poet Evert Rinsema , with whom he, because of their shared interest in literature, his life remained close friends. [10In January 1915 he was transferred to Tilburg. [11his old friend Amsterdam, Maurits, Manheim, who for some time lived in Tilburg, enabled him in the autumn of 1914 to the Antony Kokoriginating from Rotterdam . Manheim, Cook and Van Doesburg soirées intimes, early 1915 organized so-called where music was made and experimental poems were nominated. [12with Cook he discussed around this time also the possibilities of a literary-cultural magazine. Through Manheim he met Lena Milius common. Van Doesburg fell in love with Lena and found in her a more compassionate, warm and tolerant partner than his Agnita. He dedicated the poem "Mine love... ' to her that he was on 30 January 1915 – much to the chagrin of Feis – published in the magazine Unit. [13]

Introduction to the moderns[Edit]Edit

[9] [10]
Street music I and II. May/June 1915. Utrecht, Centraal Museum.

At the end of his period Tilburg started Van Doesburg himself to focus on the Visual Arts. So he visited in early June 1915 the spring exhibition of the independents in Amsterdam. Following the work of Louis Saalborn exhibited here and Laurens van Kuik , he made the sketches Street music I and II. Many early abstract artists, including Kandinsky, used music as a motif to give shape to their inner emotional life. [14Furthermore, in music the spiritualization, which they adopted a much more concrete form, then pursued all the other arts. To accompany this exhibition he writes the article ' Records about modern art ', in which he defends the moderns ' truly ' for the first time.

In the summer of 1915 caused riots and riots in groups around Tilburg stationed soldiers the city, making Van Doesburg's Army part was transferred to Utrecht in september. In Utrecht he came via ophthalmologist and amateur painter Nguyen ten Doesschate in October in contact with the Utrecht painterErich Wichmann. With Wichmann he made plans for the creation of a ' artistic ' magazine, in which Marius Brinkgreve was involved. [15he was also in Utrecht presented to the expressionist painter Janus Winter. The ' imaginings ' of ' inner ' in waarneemingen colors and shapes of these what eccentric artist made a deep impression on Van Doesburg and he used all his contacts to promote this ' pure Theosophical artist '. He also carried particular lyric poem ' the priest-artist ' to him and he was forced into making a series by him vision-like performances. [16]

[11][12]Abstracted Church. 1915 (?).Utrecht, Centraal Museum.

Following In the footsteps of Kandinsky's Van Doesburg tried evolutiedenken the development of the art (from figurative to abstract) to put into words, for example in the reading The development of modern painting. When Van Doesburg in October 1915 came into contact with the work of Piet Mondrian, he wrote about this in this kind of terms. [8this created a slow removal of expressionism. Yet that same month sent him a photo of Mondrian a drawing of the façade of the Church of Domburg, on which Van Doesburg made a similar drawing. [17Also be Mondrian him on the very random and accidental character of the Winters work, after which Van Doesburg some more distanced himself from his ' priest-artist '. [18On 6 February 1916 both met each other for the first time. [19]

After his demobilization in February 1916 he could because of its relationship with Lena Milius no longer with his wife return and he went temporarily with his mother and sister live inHaarlem on the Schoterweg 6. On 24 March 1916, he founded with Erich Wichman and Lou Saalborn artists ' Association the others , with which he from May to June of that year exhibits at art dealer Herman d'Audretsch in the Hague. Also the Winter was a member of the others. When the Winter is, however, at the last minute withdrew from the group because he found other more influential promoters in the persons Henri Borel and Frederik van Eeden, felt Van Doesburg is heavily abused. [20despite this setback for the exhibition Van Doesburg was a small success: his first numbered composition, Composition I (still life) -possibly inspired by work of the Czech artist Emil Filla -was purchased by the influential art teacher H.P. Bremmer for the collection of Mrs Kröller. [21]

In 1916 broke Van Doesburg with expressionism. This had everything to do with the evolutiedenken. After the break with the Winter appeared the booklet the painter David and his work, in which Van Doesburg Winter gave the work a place in the history of art and it compared with ' the grotesque der middeleeuwsche after-Gothic '. He now saw the expressionism of Kandinsky as a transitional period, which was overtaken by painters such as Mondrian, who had also made the spiritualization and that with ' universal values '. [8]

[13][14]Stained glass composition I. 1916. Leiden, Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal.

In the spring of 1916 he published in the magazine the movement articles series ' the new movement in painting ', published in book form in 1917 asthe new movement in painting. In this he distinguishes two types of abstract art: rational abstraction through the Cubism and impulsive abstraction via Kandinsky. As a result, the architect j.j.p. Oud wrote him a letter, in which he on May 30, Van Doesburg pointed out the agreement of modern painting with modern architecture. This letter was later that year published as ' About Cubism, Futurism, modern architecture etc. '. In it he writes:

[15] The faces with which we, as artists, our emotion, they will realise the internal space [painting] can "infuse" and to make an integral part of space, that her impending Ibrahim and can do are.

— J.j.p. Oud (4 June 1916).

[16]

A first tentative attempt in this direction was the command that Is him in August 1916 gave to a stained glass window for the door of a mayoral in Broek in Waterland (see image left).For this first stained glass composition went from Doesburg consulted the Hungarian artist Vilmos Huszár. [22would Later involve him for several projects, such as Old Villa Allegondain Katwijk aan Zeeholiday home the spark and house building in the Spangendistrict Rotterdam . In may 1916, Van Doesburg on a second artists ' Association, the Leidsche Art club The Sphinx. At the request of Old were also architects admitted.

One of the members of this Association was the Dutch architect Jan Wils. Walker had at that time as follower of the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright as one of the most progressive architects of Netherlands and like old involved Walker Van Doesburg at some of his projects. So Van Doesburg designed in 1917 five stained glass Windows designed by Walker for a teachers home in Sint anthoniepolder and he got all the freedom of will at The Long House decoration in Alkmaar. [23he gave lecture at different places by the end of 1916 The aesthetical principle in relation to modern art.

[17][18]Composition IX (The card players). Oil on canvas. 116 × 106 cm. Den Haag, gemeentemuseum Den Haag.===The Style[Edit]===

Through Mondrian and Huszár he learned in 1916 also know the painter Bart van der Leck and together they founded the group ' others ' on abstracts "or" really aware, if secretion of the expressionist to their taste to the others. [24at the beginning of 1917 began a new phase in Van Doesburg's oeuvre, the neoplasticism or Neo-plastic directory. Under the influence of his new circle of friends he used only horizontal and vertical lines and colour areas, from which virtually any ' natural ' influence disappeared. Although these works still have arisen from the observable reality – as is his Composition XII in black and white based on a landscape, and its composition in dissonances on a portrait of a woman – seems to have been the most radically Van Doesburg in his views. So thought Lena Milius to remember that when Mondrian visited him once in Leiden and L'homme à la pipe (Composition VI), he saw not yet to expect. [25]

In december 1916 he settled in Leiden,[26where he rented a Studio on the Short Galgewater 3. [27On 11 May 1917, the division between Van Doesburg and Feis pronounced, after they had lived apart for nearly three years. The same month, on 30 may, he married Lena Milius. [28]

In May 1917 Van Doesburg was preparing a magazine for the group ' conscious abstracts '. He had then been the commitment of Mondrian and Van der Leck. An important impulse was also an advance of fl. 600,-on a commitment from fl. 3.000,-of the Swiss collector Karl Friedrich Meyer-Fierz, who got to know Van Doesburg in november 1916.He called it the style. ' It's only for Visual Arts and crafts. It goes well then I expand enormously from: music, literature etc. ', he wrote on 19 May 1917 to cook. [24By papierschaarste and searching for advertisers came the first issue of the style out until October. [29other employees of the magazine were Anthony Cook, j.j.p. Oud, Gino Severini, Jan Wils, Robert van 't HoffHuib Hoste and Georges Vantongerloo.

The title – The style – is a provocation to the address of those who belonged not to the moderns according to Van Doesburg. Especially the magazine to the Amsterdam School related Twists (Editor Jon Wijdeveld) often had to suffer in Van Doesburg's articles. He compared it to a rudderless weather vane, ' motto you never can tell or zoo the wind blows, blows my hat '. [30]

But also in relation to the members of the style was very critical Of Doesburg. This led to the necessary conflicts, making the group soon fell apart. Van Doesburg was convinced that it would win the universal of the individual and so he tried to make a collective style. Members who erred from the starting points of the style or not loyal enough were unceremoniously expelled.

Van Doesburg himself was not always consistently. In the autumn of 1919 he promised the Communist Chris Beekman painter in his network to let go around a petition to collect signatures for a pretty post traffic with Russia, to offer to the Dutch Parliament. However, when Van Doesburg failed, let the likewise Communist architect Robert van 't Hoff no longer know with Van Doesburg as editor of the style to work. [31earlier that year Van 't Hoff Van Doesburg had even pointed out the experimental furniture by Gerrit Rietveld. Van Doesburg found that this Style ideas expressed in three dimensions and published them in his magazine. [32]When Van Doesburg in november 1919, despite the agreement among the members of the style only to exhibit together yet, at the same time being participated in the arts and crafts trade fair in Amsterdam, was the break with Van 't Hoff complete. [33]

[19][20]Cover of ' classical-Baroque-Modern '. 1920.

In november 1918 appeared Manifest I of the style, which called for more international cooperation and a ' world camp against the domination of individualism '. This had fairly quick results. Contacts with like-minded artists in Italy, Germany and Belgium were laid. Jozef Peeters invited Van Doesburg from a lecture for the group modern art in Antwerp. [34this lecture, titled classical-Baroque-Modern, is an example of the response to Berlage and ' his ' Amsterdamsche School, which according to Van Doesburg, the decorative Baroque principle had never released. [35]

[21][22]Theo and Nelly van Doesburg in Mondrian's Studio in Paris. Spring 1921.

At the end of February 1920, he traveled to Paris, where he visited Mondrian, who had established themselves there in 1919. Here he was introduced to the influential Parisian art dealer Léonce Rosenberg who offered a the members of the Style architecture exhibition in his gallery L'Effort Moderne. [36he also met members of the French artist group La Section d'Or. [34on that occasion, he was appointed Dutch Ambassador of La Section d'Or. He also made in Paris for the first time up close to know the Dadaist Francis Picabia 's activities and Tristan Tzara. Especially Picabia made deep impression on Van Doesburg, who in the article ' Dada ' in the new Amsterdammer to foreman of the dada movement explained. Only after a personal meeting with Tzara in June 1920 he presented his view at and called him leader of that movement. [37]

After his visit to Paris was made Van Doesburg it's time to devote attention also to the literature and so he published the manifesto in april 1920 ' Literature ',[38with which he closed his literary career ' '. [39and then Dadaism in the style to be able to record without Mondrian and other members of the Style to alienate from itself too much, he used, for his literary work, the heteronym I.K. Bakhsh, that would be an anagram of ' I'm sot '. [40In May 1921 he added the pseudonym Aldo Camini , which he used for the publication of the anti-narrative novel Caminoscopie, a antiphilosofische philosophy of life without wire or system.

[23][24]Postcard of Van Doesburg to Antony Kok.12 september 1921.===Van Doesburg and the Bauhaus[Edit]===

In 1920, he organized a number of exhibitions on behalf of the Section d'Or in Netherlands and Belgium. During the opening of the exhibition in the Hague in July he met the pianist Nelly van Moorsel, with whom he, very much against the meaning of her parents, a relationship began. [41In december 1920 he had in Berlin met with the Director of theBauhausWalter Gropius and some of his assistants and students. During this meeting, Van Doesburg work seeing the style and Gropius told about the activities of the Bauhaus. He spent the first days of 1921 at the suggestion of Gropius in Weimar, where the Bauhaus itself then was. [42The Van Doesburg fell during this first visit already on that within the Bauhaus and Arts and Craftsa craft-like atmosphere, despite the progressive attitude of Gropius. Van Doesburg established that there was sufficient space in Weimar to convince the people of the new. [34While Van Doesburg's absence was Nelly van Moorsel ran away from home and in Leiden captured by old and Milius. On 17 March 1921 began a lecture tour by Van Doesburg with FranceBelgiumItalySwitzerlandAustria and Germany, accompanied by Nelly. [43after this, they never leave each other. [41]

[25][26]Names list for the first Style course in Weimar from March to July 1922.[27][28]Announcement of the reading Der Wille zum Stil in Weimar.

The European tour ended in april 1921 in Weimar, where Van Doesburg is established for a long time. The editors of the style moved along, making it an increasingly international character got. [34In Weimar Bauhausteacher offered him an apartment, and Adolf Meyer a Bauhaus student introduced him to his Studio. Summer 1921 organized Van Doesburg Saturday night functions for students and teachers. Winter 1921-1922 he gave a private course, The style in his atelier to the Schanzengraben[44followed by a public Style course, which every Wednesday from 8 March to 8 July 1922 took place in the Studio of Peter Röhl, one of Van Doesburg's most ardent supporters. The course was attended mainly by Bauhaus students and was, according to Van Doesburg a success.

All these activities point to the fact that Van Doesburg like saw that the Bauhaus would take him as a teacher in service. His radical and often tactless towards some Bauhaus teachers made this for Gropius impossible, while in addition the already uncertain position of the Bauhaus could bring further shaken. [45Gropius was especially worried that Van Doesburg feud would get with teacher Johannes Itten. Itten and Van Doesburg were each other's opposites. "He [Van Doesburg] wore a black hat and fashionable suits. On the other hand, Itten [...] designed a kind of priest robe and strode with it just as unabashedly by Weimar as Van Doesburg with his monocle, white tie and black hat for sale ran (both to the amazement of the bourgeoisie), "know former Bauhaus student Werner Graeff to remember later. [46in addition, wanted the Bauhaus curriculum offering a as diverse as possible. Van Doesburg's ideas were too dogmatic and too focused on one comprehensive style. [47]

[29]

Still getting Van Doesburg, thanks in part to his style course, caught within the Bauhaus. The residence theatre of Weimar, for example, was formed in 1921 under the direction of Van Doesburg painted by Bauhaus students according to the principles of the style,[48Oskar Schlemmer and angular end of 1921 a new Bauhaus-designed vignette and Gropius changed the motto of the Bauhaus of ' art and craft-a new unit "to" art and technique, a new unit ',[49while Itten resign. This incremental change of course of the Bauhaus for themselves almost immediately demanded Van Doesburg on.[50and probably rightly so, because on page 54 of "Bauhaus 1919-1933"-an edition of Bauhaus-Archiv Museum für Gestaltung-we can read: "zur Überwindung des expresionistischen Bauhauses Der wichtigste Anstoß comb von außen, von dem niederländischen Künstler Theo van Doesburg (the main up to the victory in the expressionist Bauhaus came from outside, by Dutch artist Theo van Doesburg).However, he wrote in december 1922, looking back on his stay in Weimar, somewhat frustrated that in Germany there is a ' greed for mysticism and a philosophical-bound and systematically cultivated way of thinking ' and ' only an at least equally strong system in the explanation of beeldingsmiddelen and their application could not nullify these obstacles '. [51In the magazine he wrote later in mechanic welded ' Bilanz des Staatlichen Bauhauses in Weimar "(closing balance sheet of the Bauhaus) provocative: ' from outside ' Biedermeiersquared, from within. Still sends a message of solidarity to Van Doesburg in 1924 the politically cornered Bauhaus. [46In 1925 is the valuation of the Bauhaus for Van Doesburg confirmed with the publication of his basic knowledge of the new Visual Arts as part 6 in the series Bauhausbücher.

During his stay at Weimar loved Doesburg mainly deals with architecture. So he stayed, despite the great distance, work with Dutch architects, such as the drachtster architect Cees Rienks de Boer and Old. This cooperation consisted of making color designs, designing stained glass Windows and in some cases architectural advice. In november 1921, however, the cooperation with Old comes to an abrupt end. Old comes to the belief that color in the architecture must be predominant and not let Van Doesburg's color design painted over. [52after that Old only at your own discretion and apply for temporary buildings preferably color. [53Van Doesburg was here so upset about that he is old as a member of the royeerde style. In the letter to the Editor ' the architect j.j.p. Oud "predecessor" der "kubisten" in architecture? ' he did it even occur as if old though since 1918 was no longer a member.

Constructivist International[Edit]Edit

[30][31]Group picture first Congress of the Union of International Progressive artists in Düsseldorf, may 1922.[32][33]Invitation dada-evening Hotel Fürstenhof, 25 september 1922.

About 1922 learned Van Doesburg the Russian artist El Lissitzky common and found in him an important ally. Although the Russian constructivism, to which Lissitzky belonged, unlike Van Doesburg, politically committed was, Van Doesburg and the constructivists had similar goals. In the spring of 1922 made Van Doesburg together with Hans Richter plans to establish a constructivist international, inspired by the Socialist International. On 26 May 1922 took place in Weimar a meeting place between Van Doesburg, Richter, Lissitzky, Karl Peter RöhlWerner Graeff and Cornelis van Eesteren, where the IFdK (International Fraktion der Konstruktivisten) was founded. The IFdK entered into the open for the first time during the Congress of the Union of International Progressive artists, that of 29-31 May 1922 took place in Düsseldorf . The purpose of this Conference was to achieve a interest group for modern artists, but according to the IFdK was the Union not progressive enough. The group then sabotaged the Congress by on day two angry to walk away. [47]

After this Congress was raised and decided the IFdK Van Doesburg a ' Community ' to set up international Visual Konstruktivistische Labour. For this he spent in July 1922 a visit to the Berlin Studio of the Hungarian artist László Moholy-Nagyin exile. Van Doesburg on september 25, organized a Congress for this community, which was attended by the constructivist artists Moholy-Nagy, Richter and Lissitzky and a number of former students of the style course. The Congress was also attended by the dadaists Tristan TzaraHans ArpRaoul Hausmannand Kurt Schwitters , whereby the Congress went down in history as the ' International Congress of Konstructivisten and Browse '. The Congress ended with a Dadaist evening in Hotel Fürstenhof. [54as a result of the Congress published the manifesto in The StyleKonstruktivistische International a. Furthermore, the role of the international remained limited to organizing some exhibitions for a handful of members. [55because of differences of opinion, the group soon fell apart. Lissitzky, for example, could not be located in Van Doesburg's ' primitive utilitarianism '. As a result of the beginning of the hyperinflation in Germany returned from Doesburg, after a brief sojourn in Berlin, on december 5, back to Netherlands.

' Holland d[Edit]Edit

In the first months of 1923 pulled Van Doesburg Kurt Schwitters, together with Nelly van Moorsel and Vilmos Huszár by Netherlands to promote dada in the so-called D-tour. On 12 March, he organized with Schwitters, Van Moorsel and Huszár a modern dance school in the Hague Soirée Lilygreen[56and on March 28, he gave a lecture for the Social-Anarchistic youth organisation, also in the Hague. During their stay in the Hague stayed Theo and Nelly on the Ivy Street 18 in by Jan Wils designed complex Daal and Mountain. Although Waller when no longer a member of the style was, Van Doesburg was very pleased with the design and published photographs and drawings of there in the fifth anniversary issue of the style. [57Meanwhile made its color designs in Drachten for so much commotion, that he there 22 december 1922 in the lecture ' The color in our House ' for answer came. [58]

[34]

[35]Theo and Nelly van Doesburg working on the model of the Maison Particulière, Paris.1923.

[36]

[37]Cornelis van Eesteren and Theo van Doesburg in a Studio on the Rue du Moulin Vert in Paris. 1923.

[38]

[39]Hôtel Particulier. 1923.

Rosenberg Exhibition[Edit]Edit

On 4 May 1922 met Van Doesburg in Weimar the engineering student Cornelis van Eesteren. Van Eesteren, named as winner of the Prix de Rome , travelled through Central and Eastern Europe was impressed by Van Doesburg's ideas and also attended the style course at. Van Doesburg should have seen in him the ideal replacement of old and invited him to collaborate on the architecture exhibition that he had promised for years 1920 to Léonce Rosenberg. When Eesterens's Prix de Rome-grant was not renewed, Van Doesburg saw chance to tie van Eesteren on this project.

In addition to a House annex cultural centre ' (Hotel particulier), Van Doesburg and Van Eesteren designed a family house (Maison particulière) and a Studio House (Maison d'artiste) and provided Van Doesburg two earlier designs of Van Eesteren in color. Gerrit Rietveld also had a role in the design process. He made the scale model of the Hotel particulier. The designs were from 15 October to 15 november 1923 under the title Les Architectes du Groupe "The Styl" exhibited in the Gallery of Rosenberg, supplemented by earlier designs by Vilmos HuszárWillem van Leusdenj.j.p. OudLudwig Mies van der Rohe and Jan Wils. The designs were beginning to see 1924 again in the École spéciale d'architecture in Paris. As a result of both exhibitions Van Doesburg wrote the fifth proclamation of the style, entitled Vers une construction collective, a reference to Le Corbusier's Vers une architecture. But the designs continue paper architecture and the exhibition is moderately-well received. According to the style-connoisseur Paul Overy had the exhibition, however, direct influence on Le Corbusier as regards the application of color in architecture and the use of axonometric projections. [59not long did the cooperation with Van Eesteren. After a number of architecture competition questions jointly participated, ended in 1926 their friendship. [60]

Elementarisme[Edit]Edit

On February 1, 1924 established Nelly and Theo Schneider in Clamarton the Avenue, where they continued to live until the end of 1927. [61here is Van Doesburg ' for lack of construction contracts, weather beaten avid to the painting ', as he wrote on 27 August 1925 to César Domela. [62About 1925 Van Doesburg introduced the diagonal in his works. So he created a new direction in his work that he calls elementaristisch , without, however, the principles of neoplasticism to let go. In his series Contra-Compositions, which he mainly in the period 1924-1925 are both styles represented. [63]

France was not an easy environment for Van Doesburg. Dadaism and abstract art had given way to the surrealism and the ' return to the order '. [60Van Doesburg still gave lectures. At the end of 1924 he was invited in Vienna a lecture about the ' Konsequenties of Constructivism ',[64and invited Bau und Einrichtung him out to give two readings in Berlin in January 1925. [65as in Weimar tried Van Doesburg in France to enforce ' the new '. So he organized on 25 October 1924 in Paris an International Congress for modern art with a view to the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs, which subsequently in Paris from april to October to take place. [66Van Doesburg had hoped that the style should take part in this exhibition, but despite an encouragement of Ambassador Loudon, the exhibition Council decided that not the style, but the Amsterdam Schoolrepresented Netherlands. [67]

In the course of the 1920s started the attitude of the French compared to the abstract art what to change. [60The vicomte and vicomtesse de Noailles gave Van Doesburg in the spring of 1925 to command a room for cutting flowers in their designs by Robert Mallet-Stevens designed villa in Hyères. [68of 30 november to 21 december 1925 organized the Polish artist Victor-Yanaga Poznanski the exhibition Art d'aujourd ' hui(Kunst van heden), where work was by Van Doesburg, Mondrian, Huszár, César Domela, Gustaf Otto Carlsund Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewartand. Music was played during the opening of the American composerGeorge Antheil, which Van Doesburg shortly before that to style interviewer ' named '. [69the exhibition was well received by the press. [60]

[40][41]Ciné-dancing, Aubette, Strasbourg. 1927-1928.

Around this time the relationship with Mondrian began to deteriorate. In september 1925 and principled personal problems led to the end of their friendship. Van Doesburg was made, however, a new ally in Friedrich Kiesler, who earlier that year with his Army und Träger-exhibition system was represented at the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs. [60Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart and César Domela Also joined that year with the style.

Van Doesburg In 1926 by Hans Arp and Sophie Taeuber-Arp approached his wife to assist them in the redesign of the Aubette, a large venue in Strasbourg. Van Doesburg soon took the lead. Autumn 1926 contract was closed and the designs were largely ready by February 1927. [70this ' new basic [...] interiors ', such as Van Doesburg called them, in a sense, belong to the "pure monumental painting ' which he already in 1918 in the article ' Records on monumental art ' spoke. He had devised for man's goal (instead of opposite) to place the Visual Arts ' reaches. [71Van Doesburg also designed a special Aubette-font for the signage in the building and the neo-letters to the exterior. [72he also performed a high-quality consacré à Numéro l'Aubette, Strasbourg of the style from. To do this he had to itself in such a way that the debt issued by him, the last number of the style would be. In addition to this Edition and an article by Van Doesburg himself in the Aubette building company, was, to his sorrow, almost entirely ignored by the trade press. Only the American architecture critic Henry-Russell Hitchcock wrote in 1929: ' Here Elementarist painting so dominates the designs that they have little architectural existence ' (here dominates the painting the design Elementaristisch in such a way that they have little architectural raison d'etre has). [73]

Also the visitors of the Aubette were not enamored of the new interiors and the Manager changed the interiors soon by attaching-timber, artificial flowers and color lighting. [74In 1928 Van Doesburg wrote in his diary: ' Creation is the most troostelooze and disappointing occupation, wherewith God has ' man chastened[75]. In a letter to Bart de Ligt wrote that he returned disappointed from Strasbourg and ruined and was back to square one. [76]

[42][43]Cité de Circulation. 1929. ICN.[44][45]Doesburg's House, Meudon (rear). 1927-1930.

Just as in 1923, after the Rosenberg exhibition, Van Doesburg started after the Aubette-fiasco to paint again. From July 1928 to december 1930 hired Van Doesburg a Studio at the Villa Corot on the Rue d'Arcueil "2 in Paris. [77He turned against the public by ' feeling-' and ' unimaginative ' paintings as Arithmetical composition , where the intuitive of the style place made for hard, verifiable mathematical principles. [78In October 1929 he was in the Netherlands by Nelly organized exhibition Expositions sélectes d'art contemporain, for which he gave a plenary lecture at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam.

Art Concret[Edit]Edit

[46]

Art Concret , see main article.

Van Doesburg founded In december 1929 the Art Concret Group on. In 1924 it was at Van Doesburg the idea to design a city in response to Le Corbusier's Plan Voisin.He found Le Corbusier's design, how revolutionary it was, as ' frontal city ' too traditional and suggested here are Traffic city or La cité de circulation opposite. The intent was to exhibit this in 1925 on the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris, but there it is never got. About July 1929 has Van Doesburg this plan, presumably in collaboration with Abraham in Alsace, further developed and published in the German magazine Architektur der Gegenwart. [79from 30th april to mid May 1930 visited Theo and Nelly the Spanish cities Barcelonaand Madrid , where Van Doesburg some readings gave. [60On 15 October 1930 lived Theo and Nelly in Paris a show of the Cirque Calder. [80]

About June 1927 Van Doesburg decided to build a House for himself and Nelly. After he on 24 november 1928 with Nelly in the marriage was entered,[28Theo and Nelly bought a piece of land in the Paris suburb of Meudon. In december 1930 the couple moved into the House Of Doesburg, Doesburg's Housenow known as the. Van Doesburg wanted to create a new center of collective activity. [81In February 1931 there was a meeting place, which, after his death, would lead to the creation of the influential group Abstraction-Création. [82recently, on 16 June 1930 he joined the Roman Catholic Church. [83]

For year 1931 were becoming more violent Van Doesburg's asthmaattacks and it was by his friends held a fundraiser so that he could be treated. At the end of February, 1931, he moved with Nelly to the Swiss Davos to recover from his asthma. [84however, on March 7, he died at age 47 following unexpectedly of cardiac arrest.[28he was also cremated here, also only Nelly van Doesburg and Lena Milius were also present. [85]

Portraits[Edit]Edit

By Van Doesburg are many self-portraits. Lucia Moholy-Nagytook In 1924, the wife of László Moholy-Nagy, a series of portraits of him, and-face (with butterfly bow tie) and and-profil along with Nelly. In the same year made the Hungarian Bauhaus student Sándor Bortnyik a satirical collage on Van Doesburg, in which he imprisons him ' 'The Stylein his own square-construction. In the background of these collages are the concrete homes of Peacock and Venkataraman to see in Rotterdam-Zuid , which Van Doesburg in 1921 published in The Style . [86In the depot of the Netherlands Institute for cultural heritage (ICN) in Rijswijk is also a death mask of Van Doesburg (inventory number AB6039).

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